I. Nyelvleírás – Nyelvoktatás
The acquisition of the Hungarian verb conjugation by learners of Hungarian as a second/ foreign language – with special attention to the definite and indefinite conjugations
This paper analyses the results of a questionnaire including 210 test questions filled in by 83 subjects. The agreement of the verb with its grammatical object is a crucial point in teaching Hungarian to foreigners, and it represents a complex grammatical and methodological issue. In the Hungarian language, several types of definite objects can be distinguished, which all require the use of the definite conjugation. Definiteness can be marked morphologically but in certain cases language learners can rely on but semantic clues or the context when deciding on the definiteness of the object, and – consequently – on the conjugation of the verb. This paper aims at observing a difficulty order among these definite objects, assuming that the ones which are morphologically marked for definiteness are easier to use. The use of the definite/indefinite conjugation is also examined in relation to verb tense and mood, as well as to the subject. The results suggest that frequency and morphological complexity play a major role. The results may also have valuable implications for the methodology of teaching Hungarian as a second/foreign language.
On the phenomenon of optional redundancy in Hungarian grammar
With reference to optional grammar, this paper describes redundant grammatical phenomena in Hungarian, especially at the morphological level. In information theory, redundancy is the use of more signs than would be absolutely necessary to convey a certain amount of information. Natural language codes are characterized by extensive redundancy. A particular form of redundancy in Hungarian grammar is agreement, i.e. the double marking of particular grammatical categories (such as number, person, case, and definiteness) on the elements related to each other, using morphemes of the same or of synonymous meanings. From among the various structural representations containing linguistic information, this paper pays special attention to the redundancy of various suffixes.
Response words concerning 'family' in 1985 and 2006
The object of the study is to investigate the small world around the word/notion of 'family' in children aged 10-14. Two word association tests were carried out in 1985 (involving 300 children) and in 2006 (involving 1000 children), respectively. In the test of altogether cc. 200 stimulus words, the first six response words to mother, father, child, daughter and grandmother (i.e. words which are potential semantic primes of 'family') were analyzed and compared. The results show two relations between stimulus words and response words: the dominant strong, and the distributive strong relation. The first one is mainly present in the case of words having a strong biological basis (mother, father, daughter), while the second one characterizes words also having a strong social consensus (child, grandmother).
The colors of the sentence. How to teach sentence structure to children
Teaching Hungarian as a second/foreign language (L2) is no longer limited to adult education but entails more and more children in today's Hungary. Since the number of young learners of L2 Hungarian is continuously increasing in the elementary and secondary schools of the country, it is a must for the field of L2 Hungarian to develop a new framework for teaching and a new methodology suited to young learners. This paper, after introducing the most relevant rules of Hungarian word order, using the latest results of Hungarian theoretical linguistics, introduces a new method for the teaching of these rules to children. My long years in teaching L2 Hungarian to children has yielded valuable insight into the way children learn a language. This paper reveals how the use of specific colors in a fixed order makes the rules of Hungarian word order clear, and easy to grasp and handle for young learners. The paper also presents the development of a new PC software that would serve the purpose of helping both the teachers and the learners of L2 Hungarian to acquire the rules mentioned above.
Explanations in the theory and practice of teaching Hungarian as a foreign language (HFL): the example of vowel harmony
How should the teacher of HFL explain the basic issues of Hungarian grammar? This article celebrates the tenth anniversary of Hungarológiai Évkönyv by considering three publications that have appeared in the course of the new millennium (two outstanding guides for teachers of HFL by the Hungarian grandes dames of the subject, and a new version of Routledge's widely-available Colloquial Hungarian) with respect to their treatment of a single – albeit fundamental – topic, likely to be alien to most learners: vowel harmony. It is striking that the treatment in these works is still not very different from what is found in older schoolbooks for native speakers: for example, the aesthetics of the sound-system are often invoked; phonetics is rarely distinguished from phonology; and palatovelar and labial harmony are treated at the same level, leading to misunderstanding of the principles involved. The learner needs completely explicit rules. For vowel harmony there are two needed. The first is an explicit palatovelar Vowel Harmony Class rule, which establishes whether ANY STEM used in Hungarian is phonologically a Back Vowel Word or a Front Vowel Word and thus ensures the production of the correct form of the vast majority of alternating suffixes. The author's most recent formulation of this rule is given, in Hungarian, in SHERWOOD 2007 :25-7. (This article is marred by a number of unfortunate misprints). The second rule that is needed is given here. It is a Rounding Harmony rule, which – applied subsequently to the first – ensures the production of the correct form of the remaining alternating suffixes. This second rule applies in ONLY ONE alternation (e/ö//o) and its domain is adjacent syllables, NOT STEMS (e.g. gyerek-hez 'to (a) child' but gyerek-ünk-höz 'to our child'). The article further considers some implications of these rules for the teaching of HFL.
Lessons learnt from drawing-tests in the Hungarian as a foreign/second language (L2) classroom
This paper introduces the results of a small-scale study on the teaching of vocabulary to young learners of L2 Hungarian. In particular, it analyzes what lessons can be learnt from drawing-tests conducted in a Chinese-school in Hungary. The relevant literature discourages the simultaneous teaching of new grammar and new lexis, and suggests a maximum of 15 new words to be taught in a lesson. The results of the present study – involving the so-called "draw-a-person" test and the teaching of the possessive –, however, suggest the effectiveness of teaching up to 50 new words in one class, using fl ashcards, and point to the possible success of teaching new grammar with new vocabulary. The study also hints at the importance of distinguishing between active and passive vocabulary. Finally, the paper calls attention to the fact that methods borrowed from other fields of profession can be successfully implemented in language teaching – such as the draw-a-person test in the characterization of one's outer and inner features.
Specific contemplational characteristics of Hungarian as a foreign language
The present paper wishes to salute the memory of our colleague, Béla GIAY. He consistently aimed at emphasizing, in the related Hungarian scientific literature and in common scientific thinking as well, the importance of the specific structural and contemplational characteristics of Hungarian as a foreign language, together with their methodological consequences. The approach of this paper is centered around the contemplational characteristics specific to the Hungarian language, but structural aspects, often in close context with the contemplational characteristics, are also being dealt with. With reference to the above, the line of thoughts on the topic, moving from a broader context towards a narrower circle of questions to be raised, will be the following: (1) How can the position of the Hungarian language be determined in historical-comparative, areal linguistic and typological approach, taking into consideration different starting points and different approaches of research methodology? (2) Contrastive linguistic (applied typological) footing to the so-called language-specific characteristics (based on the functional set of criteria of the so-called 'tertium comparationis'). (3) Structural and contemplational characteristics of the Hungarian language as 'Hungarianisms' (with special reference to the latter). (4) Interpretation of the contemplation of space and time, of the structure of the case-system and of the aspect (further, of the phenomena of grammaticalization and lexicalization) – in view of the metaphortheory of cognitive semantics and with regard to phraseologism. (5) Possibilities of the linguistic description of specifically Hungarian characteristics, and the limitations to their teachability.
II. HUngarológia a nagyvilágban: Bemutatkozik a jubiláló Müncheni Magyar Intézet
The organizational and cultural activities of the Hungarian Institute Munich between 2000 and 2008
This paper gives a short overview of the science management activities and of the public programs organized by the Hungarian Institute Munich between the years 2000 and 2008. All the exhibitions, concerts, talks, and conferences were designed to establish a link between scientific research duties and a wide range of cultural programs, primarily focusing on Hungarian history and culture.
Corpus of 20th century interstate and intercultural relations in the HIM database
Today the internet is an all important device of research, yet it primarily mediates information rather than ensure it. The scientific, library, archival and museum expertise has the mission of knowledge transfer and knowledge authentication, which is a great intellectual, technical and financial challenge. The Hungarian Institute Munich (HIM) started the conceptual work concerning digital databases in 1996. The article describes in detail the work on an information server, which was first introduced in 2001. The server presents digitally established documents as well as full text documents, which are important for Central-Eastern European history focused on mutual relationships between states and nations: laws, contracts, documents, political talks, life recollections, statistical data, and – as a separate main focus – minority history material.
The 45-year-old Hungarian Institute Munich
The Hungarian Institute Munich (HIM), founded in 1962, is heavily involved in the area of Hungarian Studies with an interdisciplinary and regional emphasis from the beginning. Over the years, three generations of scientists have shaped the institutional concept. Five years after it had been established by Hungarian immigrants, the leadership – now German in majority – fit in the program well with other Eastern-, Central-Eastern, and South-Eastern-European Studies in Germany. The HIM also enjoyed at the time tight personal and vocational contacts to the Munich University (LMU). From the late 1990s the institute has been focusing on the modernization of Hungarian Studies, taking on the roles of researcher, instructor, book collector and publisher. Relying on Bavarian-Hungarian mutual agreements, the institute is also organizing various cultural programs. As for the immediate future, a key issue is whether the institute, with its wide concept of Hungarian Studies, may turn into a university. This would gain shape within the framework of the Bavarian scholarliness responsible for relations in the Danubian-Carpathian Region, with a traditionally major focus on Slavonic issues.
III. Nyelv és kultúra
"Aszú" from Tokaj, Pick-salami, Langosch… and the Paleochristian Mausoleum. The discourse of Hungaricum and its relation with Cultural Heritage
This study introduces the discourse of Hungaricum and that of the Western-European construct of Cultural Heritage. After identifying the major differences and similarities between these two discourses, the study argues that in everyday public communication within the Hungarian society, Hungaricum and Cultural Heritage are used as synonymous terms. This makes the contexts, operations and goals of the two discourses rather fuzzy and unclear. The above arguments are supported by the results of a questionnaire, also presented in the study.
In between traditions. Linguistic and cultural aspects of the Symposion Movement in Voivodina, Croatia
The paper examines the famous and legendary Hungarian periodical Új Symposion, published in Újvidék (Novi Sad) between the mid-1960s and the early 1990s. Aiming at publishing the new poetry and prose of the young generation (e.g. Tolnai, Végel, Gion, Ladik etc.), the periodical represented a fresh and progressive conception of language, literature, and art. Beyond the scope of literature and culture, however, the Symposion grew to be a political and cultural movement trying to formulate both a modernist avantgarde artistic program and a new conception of the Hungarian ethnic minority's culture. This novel idea followed to certain extent in the footsteps of the tradition of Hungarian culture and literature, and at the same time it tried to separate itself from other endeavors (mainly from the "provincial" attitude of the then literature of Voivodina). This paper gives an analysis of this twofold ambition and shows the major aspects of the movement that have not yet been examined in the discourse of Hungarian Studies. Major ideas: the complex relationship between the Symposion Movement, the then existing literatures of Yugoslavia, of Hungary and of other Hungarian literatures abroad.
IV. A hazai tananyagok tükrében
Situation and role of the Hungarian language in Hungary from the Establishment of the Hungarian Kingdom (1000) until the Language Reform (18th–19th centuries)
As a teacher of Hungarian as a second/foreign language, one is frequently asked questions about the different periods of the Hungarian language and of the country's cultural history. This paper aims at giving a comprehensive survey of how the latter aspect has contributed to the changes that the Hungarian language has seen over a period of 900 years. The paper looks at the period from the very first Hungarian words documented in writing, through the early phase of standardization, until the great Language Reform, which fundamentally reshaped Hungarian, and resulted in the language we speak today.
The Finno-Ugric linguistic affinity in our textbooks
This paper investigates 25 history textbooks and 25 grammar books from the following aspects. 1) How do they refl ect the results of Finno-Ugric comparative linguistics and archeology? 2) How do they generally refer to one another? 3) How do the knowledge they represent help students find their way among today`s alternative theories? All in all, the answer to the first question is mainly positive: the books largely refl ect the most up-to-date results of Finno-Ugric researches. The problem lies with the very limited amount of information available on the issue. The answer to the second question is that there is no cross-reference even between books from the very same publisher. The third question has yielded contradictory results. Despite some positive changes (e.g. the later editions of P. Horváth`s book), history books in general do not lend enough support for students to evaluate the alternative theories, and they even give confusing information on the question (e.g. the exchange of languages). Although most textbooks, in addition to listing the evidence for linguistic affinity, do mention alternative theories, there are only few books that would argue against them. Hardly any book emphasizes the difference between cultural, linguistic and ethnic relationships.
Hungarian as a second/foreign language course books through the lens of gender studies
The topic indicated in the title borders on sociolinguistics and pedagogy. Within sociolinguistics, it is related to researches in gender linguistics, while in terms of pedagogy, it is linked to foreign language teaching. Gender linguistics deals with the language use of the genders. This field, being "linguistics of public interest", refl ects on phenomena to do with language usage – such as the representation of genders in textbooks. It is this latter theoretical framework in which this paper grounds the analysis of how older and later Hungarian as a second/foreign language course books represent the genders, i.e. how they represent the roles of men and women, and how they make their male and female characters talk.
V. Európai és amerikai kitekintés
Scholarship without borders: Hungarian as a second language in research
Cross-cultural research methodology entails a variety of issues, different from those encountered when the language of research is the mother tongue. Such differences surface throughout the entire process, from the research design phase through data collection, analysis, and publication. In addition to the usual, everyday problems, research conducted in a foreign language generates new issues, including differences in language proficiency, cultural competence, and communication styles and preferences. The challenges of translating survey instruments are exacerbated by cultural barriers. The authors propose a bilingual research model, based on their experiences with the English and Hungarian languages, adaptable to use in other languages and applicable to both qualitative and quantitative research methods.
The education policy of the European Union in curriculum design and the teaching of Hungarian as a foreign language
This study aims to give a brief overview of the goals and methods to be used in the teaching of Hungarian as a Foreign Language (HFL) in the European Union. In particular, the research focuses on the question of how to develop a competent 'intercultural speaker', who understands the socio-pragmatic phenomena of the target language and culture. In addition, the elaboration of an effective quality assurance should also play a crucial part in the field of HFL methodology. The topics covered in language books are quite limited: neither do they deal with topics that can be considered as 'politically incorrect' nor with slang. Apart from the language that is being taught, the language methodology and the culturally open attitude of the language instructor are all relevant factors in the successful teaching and learning process. Therefore, the author of the present study also attempts to give practical advice on how to make learning HFL in class more enjoyable for foreign students in an intercultural context.
VI. Ismertetők, beszámolók
Reader for Csángó-Hungarians. Ciceu, Anton – Csicsó, Antal: Buchet – Bokréta (Bunch of fl owers). Gonda Könyvkiadó. Eger. 2006. pp. 407.
The review introduces a reader for Csángó-Hungarians. Csángó-Hungarians are an ethnic group living in Moldavia (Romania), who have mostly assimilated into the Romanian majority but have kept traces of ancient Hungarian culture and dialect. The Csángó-Hungarian children are bilingual or their mother tongue is Romanian. They have only been offered to receive education in Hungarian since the year 2000. Over these few years, great ethno-political and language-policy struggles have characterized this education, let alone the under-defined educational methodologies to be used. Apart from presenting the build-up and methodology of the reader, the review also points out which problems the book addresses and how it tries to solve them, and also indicates those issues that are still unsolved in the reader, due to their complexity.
Twin conference on the image of Hungarians
The paper presents the double conference held in November 2008 at the University of Pécs, on the image of Hungarians. One conference was entitled The image of Hungarians in 20th century tourist guides, and it focused on tourist guides issued in different Central and Eastern European countries in the previous century. The other conference, bearing the title The way others see us. Neighbors about each other – differences and similarities between cultures and histories on the border of the European Union, was dedicated to the examination of the picture that the new EU member states in the vicinity of Hungary have about Hungarians – and vice versa. The common prejudices and stereotypes were eliminated and a profound and fair-minded picture was formed as a result of the fact that all participants (from Hungary and abroad) used similar methods and sources in their papers. A great benefit of the conference is that, due to diversity of the disciplines represented (history, linguistics, ethnography, Hungarian studies, journalism) a number of innovative ideas were outlined regarding possible directions of future research on the topic.
Encyclopedia of Hungarian Norms of Associations
In the first volume of EHNA, Zsolt Lengyel publishes the material of the bound, one-word association study of 10-14 year olds. Data was collected between 2004 and 2006. 1100 children from Budapest, Hajdúnánás, Hatvan, Tapolca, Veszprém and from different villages were involved in the study, in order to gain as finely structured material as possible on one hand, and to get as close to the norms of 10-14 year olds as possible, on the other. An overall (grammatical, semantic, and pragmatic) annotation was provided to describe the relations between stimulus words and responses. Lengyel, thus, ceased the bias of the narrowing mainly to the grammatical relation (i.e. paradigmatic and syntagmatic associations) when characterizing the links between stimulus words and responses, and the wordlist-like enumeration of response words. Against the mainly grammar-oriented characterization, the author stands up with mainly developmental psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic excuses. Since the lexical data is organized into smaller or larger groups, they can be studied according to the features of small worlds. Also, mother tongue education can benefit greatly in many respects as the active vocabulary of 10-14 year olds can be studied in a reliable way (there are 212,665 tokens and 10,086 types available in the corpus).
A kötet (a címek után * megjelöléssel) tartalmazza a XVIII. Magyar Alkalmazott Nyelvészeti Kongresszus (Balassi Intézet, Budapest, 2008. április 3–5.) 2. szekciójának előadásait is.(A magyar mint idegen és mint második nyelv)